Medicine | A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Alternative method of obtaining 99mTc for the medical purposes

28 февраля, 2011

In connection with the curtailment by Canada the deliveries of the fragmentation of 99Mo into the different countries of peace, arose the problems with obtaining of 99mTc for conducting diagnostics in medicine.    In essence, practical medicine is ensured 99mTc, in an obtained sorption manner with the use of fragmentation of 99Mo.   Obtaining 99Mo from irradiated uranium – this is the labor-consuming, complex and expensive work, which requires deep removal of large number of radioactive admixtures from molybdenum. Therefore in [IFKHE] RAN [Russian Academy of Science], g. Moscow was developed the cheaper, simpler method of industrial obtaining of 99mTc from 99Mo and was created extraction centrifugal [poluprotivotochnyy] [generator]99mTc.   In the radium institute [im]. [V].[G].[Khlopina] g. Saint Petersburg obtains 99mTc using the method in question. At the basis of the method of the separation of 99Mo and 99mTc lies the process of the extraction of 99mTc from the alkaline solution of molybdenum by methylethylketone.    Initial product in this technology is the natural or enriched isotope of 98Mo, in which after irradiation in the nuclear reactor is accumulated 99Mo. This method of obtaining provides the high [radionuklidnuyu] cleanliness of 99mTc, since the possibility of the pollution of end product by the radio-toxic admixtures, such as are 131I, 103Ru, 95Zr, 188 Re and other, is excluded Each party [RFP] passes thorough checking, while eluate from the sorption generator daily checking in the clinics it does not undergo.   The technological process of the industrial production of 99mTc is neglected in “scientific production association radium institute [im]. [V].[G].[Khlopina]” [g].[Sankt]- Petersburg in 1993. and 25 clinics of city are ensured by technecium on the present time. In 2007 began the industrial production of 99mTc of medical designation at the plant “[Medradiopreparat]” in g. To Moscow, which also is used in the clinics for the diagnostic purposes.

The fundamental characteristics of the generator of 99mTc are given below:

  • the summary activity of initial [radionuklidnoy] mixture 99[Mo] – 99mTc it can compose order 30 Curie;
  • radiochemical cleanliness exceeds 99%;
  • the time of the extraction isolation of 99mTc 6-8 min.;
  • the output of end product is not less than 95%;
  • the volume of extract is within the limits of 40- of 50 ml;
  • the content 99[Mo] in the end product is not more than 10-5%;
  • concentration MEK in the solution of 99mTc is not more than 0,04[mg]/[ml];
  • the values of [rN] of the aqueous solution of 99mTc be within the limits of 6,0 -7,0;
  • volumetric activity can be obtained it is 5th 10 [GBk]/[ml];
  • total time of the final product is less than 90 minutes.

Technecium – 99[m], produced on our technology, on the quality exceeds, and on the cost is lower than technecium, obtained by sorption method.

Overall dimensions of the extractor:  a height – is 400 mm; diameter – 200 mm; weight – about 15kg.

The generators of technecium – 99[m] is prepared from the stainless steel of high quality. The developed by us technologies of obtaining radionuclides 90Y, 99mTc, 188Re can compose competition to world firms, which work in this the field, and the created generators are protected by 9-[yuavtorskimi] evidence of the USSR and by 5-[yupatentami] RF.
The respected associates, proposed to technology give the possibility to ensure the cities largest on the number with the radionuclides indicated. We propose collaboration in different aspects of problems described above and, in the case of the appearance in you of an interest, they are ready to discuss all technical and financial questions. We would want to obtain answer to our proposal on the electronic mail from you (Contact face: Alexander [Filyanin], e-mail: filyanin@ipc.rssi.ru).

On the industrial production of high purity 90Y, 99mTc and 188Re radionuclides for medical purposes using centrifugal semicountercurrent extraction generators

10 февраля, 2011

Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPCE RAS) developed the extraction technologies, created the generators based thereupon, and possesses the relevant “know’how” to produce the following radionuclides:

90Y, 99mTc, and 188Re.

Centrifugal Extraction Generators-General View

99mTc and 188Re generators are made of stainless steel.

The technologies we developed for the production of 90Y, 99mTc, and 188Re are highly competitive to the worldwide known companies working in the area. Our works on this subject are protected by 14 patents of Russia.

We propose the cooperation in various aspects of the problems described above. We could also look at the possibility to produce other radiopharmaceuticals, e.g. cyclotron isotopes, using our centrifugal generators. In case you have an interest, we are willing to discuss all the associated technical and financial issues.

Yttrium – 90

Yttrium – 90 The technique for producing 90Y from 90Sr using a centrifugal extraction generator is of the major practical interest. The developed generator consists of the two connected in series 2-stage centrifugal extractors. The first unit is used for the separation of 90Y from 90Sr at the first stage and for washing the 90Y extract at the second stage. The D2EHPA extractant feed rate is up to 1000 cm3/hr. The second unit is used for the deep purification of 90Y from 90Sr and 90Y stripping. After the 90Y re-extract is evaporated the final product is obtained in the chloride form (0.1M HCl).

To date we have accumulated a 5-year experience of the centrifugal semicountercurrent extraction generator application for radiopharmaceutical purposes at the Institute of Biophysics, Moscow (Dr. Kodina G.E. is the Head of Laboratory). An extraction facility for the production of medicinal 90Y isotope according to the technological scheme developed by us has successfully commenced its operation in 2000 at the Institute for Nuclear Physics of Czech Republic.

The technique for 90Y separation described above offers the following advantages as compared to the other well-known methods (see J. Radiation Appl., vol.41, #9, pp.861-865, 1990):

  • the equipment (generator) capacity ranges very wide from trace quantities to several dozens of Curie per 1 cycle;
  • the final product yield amounts not less than 95%;
  • the 90Sr impurity does not exceed 10‑5‑ 10-6% at the date of calibration;
  • the separation process can be accomplished within a 30-60 min period (time for evaporation not included) whereas the other known methods could be done within 20-24 hrs;
  • the extract volume is 50 cm3.

The generator is made of niobium metal.

Technecium – 99m

As well, we have developed a technique for the industrial production of 99mTc for medical purposes based on a centrifugal extractor with MEK (methylethylketone) for an extractant. A molybdenum trioxide target enriched by 98Mo irradiated in a nuclear reactor is used for the recovery of 99mTc. The summary activity of  radionuklide mixture 99Mo – 99mTc can compose 30 Curie and more. A technological process of the industrial production of 99mTc based on a centrifugal extraction generator has been started in Saint Petersburg, Russia in 1993 and 25 clinics of the city are provided with 99mTc ever since. The industrial production of technecium – 99m began also in 2005 at the plant “Medradiopreparat” in Moscow on our technology and the clinics of Moscow are ensured them.

The basic parameters of a 99mTc generator are listed below:

  • the summary activity of initial [radionuklidnoy] mixture 99[Mo] – 99mTc it can compose order 30 Curie;
  • the period of time needed for the 99mTc extraction separation is about 6-8 min;
  • the final product yield amounts not less than 95%;
  • radiochemical purity exceeds 99%;
  • the extract volume is 50 cm3;
  • the 99Mo content in the final product does not exceed 10-5%.
  • concentration MEK in the solution of 99mTc is not more than 0,005[mg]/[ml].
  • pH of the 99mTc aqueous solution is within the range of 6.0-7.0
  • volumetric activity can be obtained it is 5th 10 [GBk]/[ml].
  • the total time of receipt of the final product is not more than 1,5 hours.

The quality of 99mTc solution obtained according to our technique is as good as the similar solution obtained according to the sorption technique.

Renium – 188

One of the promising isotopes for therapy of a number of diseases in nuclear medicine is 188Re. A facility for producing the isotope has commenced its operation in Khlopin’s Radium Institute. The selected optimum operation conditions resulted in the following:

  • 188Re yield exceeds 90%;
  • radiochemical purity exceeds 99%;
  • pH of the 188Re aqueous solution is within the range of 6.5-7.0;
  • the extract volume is 50 cm3;
  • the period of time needed for the 188Re extraction separation is about 6-8 min;
  • activity of 188W did not exceed 1.10-6 of 188Re; the solvent was MEK.
  • the total time of receipt of the final product is not more than 2 hours.

Basically the above mentioned isotope is obtained in sorption generators; those need 188W produced in the high-flux reactors with the neutron flux over 1.1015 n.cm-2s-1, and, ultimately, that yields the high cost of the final 188Re. For the production of 188Re on an extraction centrifugal generator the natural tungsten could be used for the target material followed by the irradiation in a medium-flux reactor. That gives the cost of 188Re compared to that of 99mTc. The developed technology and equipment enable the feed 188W solution up to 5 Ci and resulting 188Re solutions of high specific activity and very low content of inorganic contaminants. The latter is very important when introducing 188Re into antibodies and peptides.

Dimensions of a 2-stage extraction unit are the following:

  • height – 400 mm;
  • diameter – 200 mm;
  • weight – about 15 kg.



 
 
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